Carlo Maria Giulini
Carlo Maria Giulini, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI (9 May 1914 – 14 June 2005) was an Italian conductor. From the age of five, when he began to play the violin, Giulini’s musical education was expanded when he began to study at Italy's foremost conservatory, the Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia in Rome at the age of 16. Initially, he studied the viola and conducting; then, following an audition, he won a place in the Orchestra dell'Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia.
In 1944 he was invited to lead what was then known as the Augusteo Orchestra (now the Santa Cecilia Orchestra), and quickly other conducting opportunities came along. These included some of the world's major orchestras including the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, London's Philharmonia Orchestra, and the Vienna Philharmonic. His career spanned 54 years with retirement coming in 1998.